2013-2014 University Catalog 
    
    Jun 27, 2022  
2013-2014 University Catalog archived

Course Descriptions


 

Accounting

  
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    ACCT 201 - Introduction to Financial Accounting


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall, Winter

    Prerequisite: At least second term, first-year standing. . This course covers the fundamental principles of financial accounting and provides an introduction to the process of accumulating, classifying, and presenting financial information. Primary emphasis is given to understanding the financial statements of a business enterprise. Staff.



  
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    ACCT 202 - Introduction to Managerial Accounting


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall, Winter

    Prerequisite: ACCT 201 and sophomore standing. This course covers the preparation and utilization of financial information for internal management purposes. Special emphasis is given to cost determination, cost control, and the development of information for planning and decisions. Staff.



  
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    ACCT 280 - History Through Accounting


    Credits: 4
    Planned Offering: Spring 2014 and alternate years.

    Prerequisites: ACCT-201 and ACCT-202. This class explores the development of accounting through the study of historical economic, business, and cultural issues. From Venetian merchants to recent scandals, this course seeks to learn how accounting has impacted society and vice versa. The course begins by reviewing early evidence of accounting methods as important tools for decision makers and then moves on to the development of financial reporting, with a large focus on the history of the railroad industry in the U.S. The class combines readings with site visits to libraries, historical societies, and businesses to dig into the forces that have helped shape accounting into the science it is today. Fafatas.



  
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    ACCT 297 - Spring-Term Topics in Accounting


    Credits: 4
    Planned Offering: Spring



    Prerequisites: ACCT 201 and others which may vary by topic. Intensive study of specific accounting issues in significant detail. Pedagogy depends on the specific topic but generally emphasizes discussion, research, fieldwork, projects, or case analysis rather than lecture. Specific course content changes from term to term, and is announced prior to preregistration. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

    Spring 2014 topics:

    ACCT 297A: The Anatomy of a Fraud (4). Prerequisite: ACCT 201. Preference given to First-Years. Not open to seniors. The purpose of this course is to take a deep dive into the phenomena of financial statement fraud and to “dissect it” from a number of angles. Drawing on historical cases of financial statement fraud as well as the first-hand experience of the instructor, a trained forensic accountant, we search for the answers to questions such as: What causes executives to “cook the books”? What factors contribute to collusion in the fraud? What can be done to prevent and detect it? Hess.

    ACCT 297B: Accounting and Corporate Financial Distress (4). Prerequisites: Open to sophomores with ACCT 201 and 202 and others with instructor consent. We examine the connection between financial reporting and individual company financial distress; using the financial statements of one of the companies that have recently experienced financial distress (e.g., Bear Sterns, Lehman Brothers, AIG, Circuit City, Chrysler, GM, Enron, WorldCom, Adelphia). Our analysis includes an intensive examination of financial accounting principles, regulatory structures, and standard setting relevant to the company in question. Wiest.



  
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    ACCT 310 - Accounting Information Systems


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall

    Prerequisite: ACCT 201 and at least junior standing. An introduction to the information systems used in accounting, including the flow of data from source documents through the accounting cycle into reports for decision makers; the principle of internal control; flowcharting and systems narratives; and use of computers and database systems in accounting information. Students have hands-on experience implementing and using accounting information systems. Ballenger.



  
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    ACCT 311 - Financial Statement Analysis


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall

    Prerequisites: ACCT 202 and at least junior standing. Students work to prepare an industry and a company analysis. Through presentations, written analyses and extensive work using computer spreadsheets and databases, students learn to analyze and interpret financial statements of publicly traded companies. Fafatas.



  
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    ACCT 320 - Intermediate Accounting I


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter

    Prerequisite or corequisite: ACCT 202 and at least sophomore standing. This course examines the principles of financial accounting as applied to financial statement presentation and the underlying treatment of cash, investments, receivables, inventory,long-term assets, and intangible assets. Oliver.



  
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    ACCT 321 - Intermediate Accounting II


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall

    Prerequisite: ACCT 320 and at least junior standing. This course examines financial reporting issues that cover current and long-term liabilities, stockholders’ equity, earnings per share, revenue recognition, income taxes, pensions, leases, accounting changes and errors, and cash flows. Boylan.



  
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    ACCT 328 - Writing and Research for Accountants I


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall

    Prerequisite: ACCT 320 and at least junior standing. Concentrated work in writing for the business world and researching financial accounting issues sharpen students’ analytical and writing skills. This course introduces students to various forms of business writing and explores how to effectively research accounting decisions under the FASB and IFRS. The revision process is used to help improve writing skills. The content of the course comes from ACCT 320. Oliver



  
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    ACCT 329 - Writing and Research for Accountants II


    Credits: 1
    Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit.

    Prerequisite: ACCT 328 and at least junior standing. Concentrated work in writing for the business world and researching financial accounting issues sharpen students analytical and writing skills. Students continue to hone their writing and researching skills using the transactions covered in Intermediate Accounting II. Oliver.



  
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    ACCT 330 - Cost Accounting


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter

    Prerequisite: ACCT 202 and at least sophomore standing. This course covers selected topics from cost accumulation, planning, reporting, control and decision making. Use of spreadsheets is required. Bai.



  
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    ACCT 340 - Advanced Accounting


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter.

    Prerequisite: ACCT 321 and at least junior standing. This course covers accounting for business combinations and partnerships; segment and interim reporting; foreign currency transactions and translation of foreign currency financial statements; governmental and nonprofit accounting. Wiest.



  
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    ACCT 355 - Taxation Accounting I


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall

    Prerequisite: ACCT 201 and at least junior standing. This course provides an analysis of federal income tax laws and develops conceptual awareness of federal income tax structure and tax planning. Emphasis is on developing a student’s ability to determine solutions to tax difficulties confronting individuals. Alexander.



  
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    ACCT 356 - Taxation of Business Entities and Special Topics in Taxation


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter

    Prerequisite: ACCT 355 and at least junior standing. This course begins by establishing a basic understanding of income tax laws as they relate to C corporations and flow-through entities (e.g., partnerships, s-corporations, limited liability corporations). The course includes modules on specialized tax topics such as international taxation, state and local taxation, taxation of investments, accounting for income taxes, and taxation of property. Alexander.



  
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    ACCT 357 - Tax Research


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter

    Prerequisite: ACCT 355. This course covers tax research fundamentals, focusing on finding and interpreting legislative, administrative and judicial authorities. Students use online tax databases extensively to complete research problems outside of class. This course includes a service component. Alexander.



  
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    ACCT 360 - Auditing


    Credits: 4
    Planned Offering: Spring

    Prerequisites: ACCT 321, at least junior standing, and accounting major. This course examines auditing and its role in a market economy. Course content focuses on the market for audit services, audit planning, evidence gathering, and reporting. Staff.



  
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    ACCT 370 - Casino Accounting, Auditing, and Financial Analysis


    Credits: 4
    Planned Offering: Spring 2013 and alternate years



    Prerequisites: ACCT 320 or instructor consent, and must be 21 years of age by the first day of Spring classes.

    This course provides an introduction to financial accounting and auditing in the gaming industry. Topics include the design and implementation of controls over cash, revenue recognition and measurement, accounting for the extension of casino credit , progressive jackpot liabilities, complimentary expenditures, and customer loyalty programs. Boylan.



  
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    ACCT 401 - Directed Individual Study


    Credits: 1
    Planned Offering: All terms.

    Prerequisites: 12 credits in accounting courses numbered above 202, either a cumulative grade-point average of 3.000 or of 3.000 in all accounting courses, at least junior standing, and instructor consent. The objective is to permit students to follow a course of directed study in some field of accounting not presented in other courses, or to emphasize a particular field of interest. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. Staff.



  
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    ACCT 402 - Directed Individual Study


    Credits: 2
    Planned Offering: Fall, Winter

    Prerequisites: 12 credits in accounting courses numbered above 202, either a cumulative grade-point average of 3.000 or of 3.000 in all accounting courses, at least junior standing, and instructor consent. The objective is to permit students to follow a course of directed study in some field of accounting not presented in other courses, or to emphasize a particular field of interest. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. Staff.



  
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    ACCT 403 - Directed Individual Study


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall, Winter

    Prerequisites: 12 credits in accounting courses numbered above 202, either a cumulative grade-point average of 3.000 or of 3.000 in all accounting courses, at least junior standing, and instructor consent. The objective is to permit students to follow a course of directed study in some field of accounting not presented in other courses, or to emphasize a particular field of interest. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. Staff.



  
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    ACCT 406 - Directed Individual Study


    Credits: 6
    Planned Offering: Fall, Winter

    Prerequisites: 12 credits in accounting courses numbered above 202, either a cumulative grade-point average of 3.000 or of 3.000 in all accounting courses, at least junior standing, and instructor consent. The objective is to permit students to follow a course of directed study in some field of accounting not presented in other courses, or to emphasize a particular field of interest. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. Staff.



  
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    ACCT 453 - Internship


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall

    Prerequisites: ACCT 320, senior standing, and consent of the department. Limited to declared public accounting majors. Graded Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory. Professional service in a public accounting firm or approved equivalent, arranged and supervised individually. Students proposing to undertake an internship must coordinate their plans with the department’s internship supervisor prior to the internship. Students undertaking an internship in the summer may receive credit in the following fall only as an overload. Staff.



  
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    ACCT 493 - Honors Thesis


    Credits: 3-3
    Planned Offering: Fall-Winter

    Prerequisite: Take 12 credits from Accounting, except courses ACCT-201, ACCT-202, and senior standing. Instructor consent required. Honors Thesis.




Africana Studies

  
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    AFCA 130 - Introduction to Africana Studies


    FDR: HU
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter



     

    This seminar, taught collaboratively in four discrete modules, introduces students to the issues, debates, and moments which have shaped and continue to shape the broad and complex field of Africana Studies and the multifaceted experiences and aspirations of peoples of African descent. Among other effects, students who take this class gain a broad appreciation of the historical and philosophical context necessary for understanding the specific identities and contributions to world cultures and civilizations of Africans, African Americans, and Africans in the greater Diaspora; and develop thinking, analytical, writing, and collaborative skills as students complete a major project with one or more of their classmates. Staff.



  
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    AFCA 403 - Directed Individual Study


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and faculty resources permit.



    Prerequisites: AFCA 130, completion of six credits in Africa-focused and African Diaspora-focused courses, at least junior standing, and instructor consent.

    This course facilitates individual reading, research, and writing in an area of Africana Studies not covered in-depth in other courses. May be repeated for degree credit and/or used for the capstone requirement in the minor in Africana Studies. Staff.




Anthropology

  
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    ANTH 101 - Introduction to Anthropology


    FDR: SS4
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall, Winter

    Prerequisite: First-year or sophomore standing. Juniors and seniors with instructor consent. An examination of people and their cultures. An introduction to the techniques employed by the physical anthropologist, archaeologist, and ethnographer is provided. Specific subjects considered include: the physical prerequisites to the acquisition of culture, archaeological interpretation of cultural behavior, and the influences of culture upon the individual and society. Staff.



  
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    ANTH 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar


    FDR: SS4
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Offered occasionally. Each first-year seminar topic is approved by the Dean of The College and the Committee on Courses and Degrees. Applicability to FDRs and other requirements varies.



    First-year seminar. Prerequisite: First-year standing. Topical description when offered.

    Fall 2013 Topic:

    ANTH 180: FS: Discovering the Origins of Washington and Lee Using Historical Archaeology (3). First-Year Seminar. Prerequisite: First-Year class standing. This seminar introduces students to the practice of historical archaeology using Liberty Hall Academy and recent excavations on the main Washington and Lee campus as case studies. Students work on collaborative projects which present the findings of our research to a broader local and visiting public. Using archaeological excavation, documentary research, artifact analysis, and computer mapping, we explore the range of questions and answers that these sources make possible. Students work together to produce public interpretations about the University’s early history using their hands-on experience with the archaeological data. (SS4) Gaylord. Fall 2013



  
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    ANTH 205 - Archaeology


    FDR: SS4
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter 2014 and alternate years.

    An examination of anthropologically-oriented archaeology. Specific subjects to be considered will include the history of the subdiscipline, theoretical developments, field techniques, substantive contributions for the prehistoric and historic subareas and recent developments in theory and methodology. Bell.



  
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    ANTH 207 - Biological Anthropology


    FDR: SS4
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Not offered in 2013-2014

    This course considers the emergence and evolution of Homo sapiens from fossil, archaeological, and genetic evidence. The class focuses on evolutionary mechanisms; selective pressures for key human biological and behavioral patterns, such as bipedalism, intelligence, altruism, learned behavior, and expressive culture; relations among prehuman species; the human diaspora; and modern human diversity, particularly “racial” variation. The course also examines theories from sociobiology and evolutionary psychology about motivations for modern human behaviors. Staff.



  
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    ANTH 223 - Social Sciences and Religion


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter 2013 and alternate years

    Scholars still debate the appropriate relationship between social science and religion, with the two most extreme positions assuming the impossibility of a social science of religion, on the one hand, and denial of the validity of religious claims, on the other. Beginning with an examination of the fundamental debates regarding the nature and goals of social scientific inquiry, we examine classical and contemporary analyses of religion in psychology, sociology, and anthropology. The major social scientific paradigms - materialist, functionalist, and phenomenological - differ in their implications for understanding and explaining religious phenomena; they provide the context for consideration of questions of reductionism, explanation vs. understanding, insider vs. outsider orientations, and the nature and limits to truth claims made both by social scientists and religious devotees and scholars. Markowitz.



  
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    ANTH 224 - American Indian Religions, Landscapes, and Identities


    (REL 224) FDR: HU
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Not offered in 2013-2014

    Drawing on a combination of scholarly essays, native accounts, videos, guest lectures, and student presentations, this seminar examines the religious assumptions and practices that bind American Indian communities to their traditional homelands. The seminar elucidates and illustrates those principles concerning human environmental interactions common to most Indian tribes; focuses on the traditional beliefs and practices of a particular Indian community that reflected and reinforced the community’s understanding of the relationship to be maintained with the land and its creatures; and examines the moral and legal disputes that have arisen out of the very different presuppositions which Indians and non-Indians hold regarding the environment. Markowitz.



  
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    ANTH 238 - Anthropology of American History


    (HIST 238) FDR: SS4
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall 2013 and alternate years

    Prerequisite: Instructor consent. This course explores issues within historic American communities that ethnographers often investigate among living groups, including cultural values, religious ideologies, class structures, kinship networks, gender roles, and interethnic relations. Although the communities of interest in this course ceased to exist generations ago, many of their characteristic dynamics are accessible through such means as archaeology, architectural history, and the study of documents. Case studies include early English settlement in Plymouth, Massachusetts; the 18th-century plantation world of Virginia and South Carolina; the post-Revolutionary Maine frontier; and 19th-century California. Bell.



  
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    ANTH 243 - Imaging Tibet


    (ARTH 243) FDR: HA
    Credits: 4
    Planned Offering: Spring 2014

    An examination of images and imaging practices of the early 1900s to the present in order to define and analyze the ways in which both Western and Asian (particularly Tibetan and Chinese) artists have imagined Tibet and its people. Kerin.



  
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    ANTH 252 - Language, Culture, and Communication


    FDR: SS4
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter 2015 and alternate years

    This course surveys anthropological approaches to understanding the intersections among language, culture and society. Topics include non-human communication systems, the origins of human language, and methods of establishing historical relationships among languages. Formal linguistic analysis receives some attention, but the greatest part of the course concerns language in sociocultural contexts. Examples of linguistic phenomena in ethnographic perspective are drawn from people around the world, including the Gullah, the Apache, and the Bedouin of Egypt. Bell.



  
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    ANTH 255 - Terror and Violence in Anthropological Perspective


    FDR: SS4
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter 2013 and alternate years

    This course investigates violence and terror in historical and contemporary societies. We discuss the various causes, methods, and effects of violence and terror, and then look at how anthropologists have documented, challenged, and even condoned such processes. Goluboff.



  
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    ANTH 260 - Conflicts in Eurasia: Globalization, New States, and Soviet Legacies


    FDR: SS4
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Not offered in 2013-2014

    In this course, students learn how to apply anthropology and a wide range of other disciplinary techniques to understand and attempt to solve post-socialist problems. Students do independent research on issues relevant to their main areas of course work. We explore how ethnographic fieldwork and cultural theory provide key information about how people in Eurasia relate to daily conflicts through common past socialist experiences and new interactions with globalization, transnational movements, and the world market. Throughout the term, we discuss differences and similarities, advantages and disadvantages of various disciplinary approaches to key conflicts in the region. Topics include crime, the emerging marketplace, poverty, health, gender, and ethnic conflict. We study Eurasia via issues rather than geography, and we focus intensely on the transnational effects of wars in Chechnya and Afghanistan. The class reads material from anthropology and other disciplines and watches several documentaries. Goluboff.



  
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    ANTH 275 - Feminist Anthropology


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter 2014 and alternate years

    This course covers the complex and sometimes “awkward” relationship between feminism and anthropology. We explore topics such as the place of feminist theory and politics within the discipline of anthropology, the problems involved in being a feminist and an anthropologist, and the creation of feminist ethnography. Goluboff.



  
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    ANTH 277 - Seminar in Medical Anthropology


    FDR: SS4
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter

    Despite radical differences in theory and procedure, the diagnosis and treatment of diseases are human cultural universals. This seminar first examines the beliefs and practices that comprise the medical systems found among a wide variety of non-western peoples. We then investigates the responses of a number of non-western communities to the introduction of western, biomedical practices. We finish by considering such ethical issues as whether or not non-western peoples who supply western doctors and pharmacologists with knowledge of curing agents should be accorded intellectual property rights over this information; in what situations, if any, should western medical personnel impose biomedical treatments on populations; and should anthropologists make use of indigenous peoples as medical trial subjects as was allegedly done by Napoleon Chagnon. Markowitz.



  
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    ANTH 285 - Introduction to American Indian Religions


    (REL 285) FDR: HU
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall.

    This class introduces students to some of the dominant themes, values, beliefs, and practices found among the religions of North America’s Indian peoples. The first part of the course explores the importance of sacred power, landscape, and community in traditional Indian spiritualities and rituals. It then examines some of the changes that have occurred in these traditions as a result of western expansion and dominance from the 18th through early 20th centuries. Lastly, the course considers some of the issues and problems confronting contemporary American Indian religions. Markowitz.



  
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    ANTH 286 - Land in American Indian Culture, Religion, and History


    Credits: 4
    Planned Offering: Spring 2014 and alternate years.

    This class focuses on the religious, cultural, and historical dimensions of a selected American Indian nation and ties to its lands as they found expression in the beliefs and practices of its pre- and post-reservation communities. The specific themes that the seminar will address are: 1) Lands, Culture, and Cosmology; 2) Lands, Subsistence, and Ceremony; and 3) Land in the Nation’s History; and 4) Sacred Landscape and Contestation.  The course may cover the Lakota Sioux, Cherokee, or other Indian nation. Topic for 2013: Lakota. Markowitz.



  
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    ANTH 288 - Childhood


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall 2014 and alternate years.

    This course explores the experience of childhood cross-culturally. It investigates how different societies conceptualize children, and our readings will progress through representations of the life cycle. Beginning with the topic of conception, the course moves through issues pertaining to the fetus, infants, children, and adolescents. Discussions of socialization, discipline, emotion, education, gender, and sexuality are included and special attention is given to the effects of war, poverty, social inequality, and disease on children and youth. Goluboff.



  
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    ANTH 290 - Special Topics in Anthropology


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Offered when interest is expressed and departmental resources permit.



    A discussion of a series of topics of anthropological concern. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

    Winter 2014 topic:

    ANTH 290: Hooking up and Dating on Campus in the Digital Age (3). This class explores how the cell phone has impacted “hooking up” and dating on campus, with particular attention to Washington and Lee University as a case study. We discuss the development of campus sexual culture in America and the influence of digital technology on student sociality. Students use open-source digital research tools to analyze data (interviews, focus groups, statistics) collected during Fall 2011 about dating and “hookup” behavior at W&L. Students work in groups to post their weekly analyses on the class WordPress site, as a digital humanities project. The goal of the course is to create a variety of interpretations of the data that might challenge or reaffirm conclusions drawn in a recent scholarly article. Goluboff.

    Fall 2013 topics:

    ANTH 290-01: American Indian Ethnography (3). One of the major goals of modern ethnohistory is to use historical and anthropological methods to uncover the understandings that non-western peoples have of their own histories. This seminar will introduce students to the theoretical and methodological principles of ethnohistorical research and their application to North American peoples. Participants will first study American Indian conceptions of time and their relationship to the criteria by which tribal communities selected and comprehended the events comprising their histories. The seminar will then examine how Indian tribes from different parts of North America, including the Southwest, Northeast, Southeast, and Plains interpreted, evaluated, and responded to their encounters with colonial and the United States governments. Markowitz.

    ANTH 290-02: Food, Culture, & Society (3). In this course, we discuss the key roles that food plays in culture, society, and individuals’ notions of self and community. We begin by investigating the place of food in religious rituals and the daily practices of believers. We then focus on how the globalization of the food industry has impacted local cultures, the natural environment, and national identities. When studying the influence of the “eat local” movement on shopping and consumption habits, we take a field trip to nearby place(s) of sustainable farming and artisan/heritage food production. Students write a research paper on the trajectory of a food item of their choice, preferably using options available in the local community. Goluboff.



  
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    ANTH 332 - Historical Archaeology


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Not offered in 2013-2014

    This course considers the discipline of historical archaeology from developmental, theoretical, methodological, and substantive perspectives. Beginning with the age of European exploration and continuing through modern times, this course surveys archaeological approaches to understanding social relations, class structures, and economic strategies among people of diverse ethnicities in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, and Australia. Students become familiar with prominent theoretical orientations within historical archaeology, debates about archaeologists’ ethical obligations, and methodological developments in fieldwork and artifact research. Bell.



  
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    ANTH 354 - Cultural Theory


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall

    Prerequisite: ANTH 101 and at least junior standing. A consideration of the development of social and cultural theory from an anthropological perspective. A discussion of the major contributors to the field is pursued. Required of all majors in anthropology and sociology. Goluboff.



  
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    ANTH 377 - Field Methods in Archaeology


    Credits: 4
    Planned Offering: Spring

    Additional special fees. Some financial aid may be available through departmental funds. Fieldwork in archaeology. The student participates in all phases of ongoing archaeological projects. Students who have successfully completed ANTH 205 are assured of a place in ANTH 377. With the supervision of the instructor, students may take ANTH 377 more than once. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. Bell, Gaylord.



  
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    ANTH 378 - Archaeological Field Survey Techniques


    Credits: 4
    Planned Offering: Fall 2013 and alternate years

    Prerequisite: Instructor consent. The course is designed to provide the student with an opportunity to engage in archaeological field survey in Rockbridge County. Classroom meetings concerning the theory and methods of modern archaeological survey are supplemented by field research concerning sites of historic and prehistoric significance. Gaylord.



  
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    ANTH 390 - Special Topics in Anthropology


    Credits: 3
    Permission of the department required. Topics and prerequisites to be arranged. A discussion of a series of topics of anthropological concern. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. Staff.



  
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    ANTH 395 - Senior Seminar in Anthropological Analysis


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter

    Prerequisite: ANTH 101 and SOC 375. This course provides students with a capstone experience in anthropology. It builds on and expands students’ knowledge of anthropological theory, methods, and interpretation by drawing on diverse published case studies in cultural anthropology and archaeology, and on students’ experiences in the course. Each student designs and implements an original research project in an area of particular interest within cultural anthropology or archaeology. This process involves students thinking through and choosing among theoretical perspectives, research methods, analytical approaches, and interpretive media individually and collaboratively. Students also reflect on key ethical issues in anthropology, assess their anthropological foundation, and consider the ways in which their educational experiences have encouraged them to think about global cultural diversity and their own positions in western society. Bell.



  
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    ANTH 401 - Directed Individual Study


    Credits: 1
    Prerequisite: Permission of the department. A course for selected students, typically with junior or senior standing, who are preparing papers for presentation to professional meetings or for publication. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. Staff.



  
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    ANTH 402 - Directed Individual Study


    Credits: 2
    Prerequisite: Permission of the department. A course for selected students, typically with junior or senior standing, who are preparing papers for presentation to professional meetings or for publication. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. Staff.



  
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    ANTH 403 - Directed Individual Study


    Credits: 3
    Prerequisite: Permission of the department required. A course for selected students with junior and senior standing, especially for anthropology honors students, with direction by different members of the department. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. Staff.



  
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    ANTH 404 - Directed Individual Study


    Credits: 4
    Prerequisite: Permission of the department required. A course for selected students with junior and senior standing, especially for anthropology honors students, with direction by different members of the department. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. Staff.



  
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    ANTH 405 - Directed Individual Study


    Credits: 5
    Prerequisite: Permission of the department required. A course for selected students with junior and senior standing, especially for anthropology honors students, with direction by different members of the department. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. Staff.



  
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    ANTH 406 - Directed Individual Study


    Credits: 6
    Prerequisite: Permission of the department required. A course for selected students with junior and senior standing, especially for anthropology honors students, with direction by different members of the department. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different. Staff.



  
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    ANTH 453 - Internship


    Credits: 3
    Prerequisites: Grade-point average of 2.500 in anthropology and 2.500 overall, and permission of the staff. Supervised anthropology laboratory or off-campus experience in a museum, research organization, cultural program, social service, or archaeological collection management. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.



  
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    ANTH 456 - Internship


    Credits: 6
    Prerequisites: Grade-point average of 2.500 in anthropology and 2.500 overall, and permission of the staff. Supervised anthropology laboratory or off-campus experience in a museum, research organization, cultural program, social service, or archaeological collection management. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.



  
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    ANTH 459 - Internship


    Credits: 9
    Prerequisites: Grade-point average of 2.500 in anthropology and 2.500 overall, and permission of the staff. Supervised anthropology laboratory or off-campus experience in a museum, research organization, cultural program, social service, or archaeological collection management. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.



  
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    ANTH 493 - Honors Thesis


    Credits: 3-3
    Planned Offering: Fall-Winter

    Prerequisite: BUS 217. Honors Thesis.




Art History

  
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    ARTH 101 - Survey of Western Art: Ancient to Medieval


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall

    First-year and sophomore standing or instructor consent. Chronological survey of Western art from the Paleolithic Age through the Middle Ages in Italy and Northern Europe. Examination of cultural and stylistic influences in the art and architecture of ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Consideration of distinct interests of Early Christian, Byzantine, and Medieval Europe. Focus on major monuments and influential images produced up to circa 1400. Bent.



  
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    ARTH 102 - Survey of Western Art: Renaissance to the Present


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter

    Chronological survey of Western art from the Renaissance through the present. Topics include the Renaissance, from its cultural and stylistic origins through the Mannerist movement; the Baroque and Rococo; the Neoclassical reaction; Romanticism and Naturalism; the Barbizon School and Realism; Impressionism and its aftermath; Fauvism, Cubism, Dada, Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism, Pop, Minimalism, and the Postmodern reaction to Modernism. King, Lepage.



  
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    ARTH 125 - The Business of Contemporary Art


    (BUS 125) FDR: HA
    Credits: 4
    Planned Offering: Spring 2014 and alternate years.

    This course combines finance, tax policy, marketing, economics, and art history to provide a ‘nuts-and-bolts’ view of how the contemporary art world operates. Appropriate for business students with an interest in contemporary art as well as museum studies and art history majors who wish to gain an understanding of business concepts in the art world, the course serves as preparation for students who may anticipate acquiring art for personal or business investment/use, serving on a museum board, pursuing employment in the art world, or advising high wealth clients on business matters related to art. Each topic begins with an overview of general principles before reviewing applications to the art world. For example, discussion of charitable giving covers the general tax rules of charitable deductions before discussing the specific rules related to art and museums. Alexander, King



  
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    ARTH 140 - Asian Art


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall

    An introduction to the study of traditional architecture, sculpture, painting, prints, and decorative arts of India, China, Korea, and Japan. Kerin.



  
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    ARTH 141 - Buddhist Art of South & Central Asia


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall 2012 and alternate years

    This course investigates the multivalent world of Buddhist art from South and Central Asia, particularly areas that now fall within the modern-day boundaries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, China, Tibet, and Nepal. We study the nascent forms of Buddhist imagery and its ritual functions from the Indo-Pak subcontinent, focus on monumental sculpture and cave architecture of Central Asia (Afghanistan and the Tarim Basin)and issues of iconoclasm, and study the art and iconography of the Himalayas, as well as current-day production and restoration practices of Tantric Buddhist art. Kerin.



  
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    ARTH 170 - Arts of Meso- and South America


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall 2013 and alternate years

    Survey of the art and architecture of Meso- and South before the arrival of the Europeans, with a focus on indigenous civilizations including the Olmec, Maya, Aztec, and Inca. Art is contextualized in terms of religious, social, political, and economic developments in each region under discussion. The class includes a trip to Dumbarton Oakes in Washington, DC. Lepage.



  
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    ARTH 180 - FS: First-Year Seminar


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Offered occasionally. Each first-year seminar topic is approved by the Dean of The College and the Committee on Courses and Degrees. Applicability to FDRs and other requirements varies.

    First-year seminar. Prerequisite: First-year standing. .



  
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    ARTH 200 - Ancient and Classical Art


    (CLAS 200) FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    A survey of art and architecture in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the pre-Classical Aegean world, as well as an introduction to Greek and Roman painting, sculpture, and architecture. Staff.



  
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    ARTH 240 - Arts of China


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall 2013 and alternate years.

    A survey of traditional Chinese art from its beginnings through the Qing dynasty. Includes architecture, sculpture, bronzes and ceramics, as well as painting. Kerin.



  
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    ARTH 241 - Arts of Japan


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall 2013 and alternate years.

    A survey of Japanese art from its beginnings through the Edo period. Includes architecture, gardens, sculpture, prints, ceramics and other decorative arts, as well as painting. Kerin.



  
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    ARTH 242 - Arts of India


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter 2015 and alternate years.

    A survey of traditional Indian art from its Indus Valley beginnings through the period of Mughal domination. Includes architecture, sculpture, and painting, as well as decorative arts. Kerin.



  
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    ARTH 243 - Imaging Tibet


    (ANTH 243) FDR: HA
    Credits: 4
    Planned Offering: Spring 2014 and alternate years.

    An examination of images and imaging practices of the early 1900s to the present in order to define and analyze the ways in which both Western and Asian (particularly Tibetan and Chinese) artists have imagined Tibet and its people. Kerin.



  
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    ARTH 244 - 20th-Century Arts of Asia


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall 2014 and alternate years

    This course examines art of the 20th century from South and East Asia, primarily through the lenses of larger socio-political movements that informed much of Asia’s 20th-century cultural discourses: Colonialism, Post-Colonialism, Socialism, Communism, and Feminism. We also address heated debates concerning “non-Western” 20th-century art as peripheral to the Western canons of Modern and Contemporary art. The art and artists’ lives and works we study challenge us to engage broader and more inclusive concepts about transnational identity, artistic production, and art-historical taxonomy. Kerin.



  
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    ARTH 253 - Medieval Art in Southern Europe


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Not offered in 2013-2014

    Examination of the art and culture of Italy and Greece from the rise of Christianity to the first appearance of bubonic plague in 1348. Topics include early Christian art and architecture; Byzantine imagery in Ravenna and Constantinople during the Age of Justinian; iconoclasm; mosaics in Greece, Venice and Sicily; sculpture in Pisa; and the development of panel and fresco painting in Rome, Florence, Siena and Assisi. Bent.



  
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    ARTH 254 - Medieval Art in Northern Europe


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter 2015 and alternate years.

    Survey of the art of France, Spain, Germany, and the British Isles from circa 700 to circa 1400. Discussions include Carolingian and Ottonian painting and architecture, Celtic and Anglo-Saxon manuscripts, and French cathedral design and decoration during the Romanesque and Gothic periods. Bent.



  
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    ARTH 255 - Northern Renaissance Art


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter 2015 and alternate years.

    A survey of Northern painting from 1300 to 1600, examined as symbols of political, religious, and social concerns of painters, patrons, and viewers. Among the artists covered are Campin, van Eyck, van der Weyden, Dürer, Holbein, and Brueghel. Emphasis placed on interpretation of meaning and visual analysis. Bent.



  
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    ARTH 256 - Italian Renaissance Art


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall

    Survey of the art and architecture of Italy during the 15th and 16th centuries. The course focuses on innovations of the Early, High, and Late Renaissance through the work of Brunelleschi, Donatello, Masaccio, Alberti, Leonardo, Bramante, Raphael, and Michelangelo. Images are considered as exponents of contemporary political, social, and religious events and perceptions. Bent.



  
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    ARTH 257 - Dutch Arts, Patrons, and Markets


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter 2014 and alternate years

    During the 17th century, the practices of making and buying art boomed as never before in the Dutch Republic. With the creation of the first large-scale open art market, prosperous Dutch merchants, artisans, and civil servants bought paintings and prints in unprecedented numbers. Foreign visitors were astonished that even modest members of Dutch society such as farmers and bakers owned multiple works of art. Dutch 17th-century art saw the rise of new subjects, as landscapes, still lifes, and scenes of daily life replaced formerly dominant religious images and scenes from classical mythology. Portraiture also flourished in this prosperous atmosphere. Among the artists covered are Frans Hals, Judith Leyster, Jan Steen, Frans Post, Johannes Vermeer, and Rembrandt. Lepage.



  
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    ARTH 258 - Baroque and Rococo Art


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Not offered in 2013-2014

    A survey of the art and architecture of Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries. The course focuses on the stylistic and ideological issues shaping western art during the age of Religious Wars. This course considers the stylistic innovations of Caravaggio, Bernini, Rubens, Rembrandt, Velasquez, Poussin, Watteau, Boucher, Fragonard, and Tiepolo, as well as the function of- and interest in-artistic production within the context of 17th- and 18th-century society. Lepage.



  
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    ARTH 259 - The Art and Architecture of England


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Not offered in 2013-2014

    The painting, sculpture and architecture of England from the medieval period to the 20th century. Staff.



  
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    ARTH 261 - History of Photography


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Not offered in 2013-2014

    An introduction to the technical, aesthetic, and social history of photography within a cultural context in the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as contemporary movements in the medium. Course includes weekly lectures, readings, films, and discussions, as well as gallery and museum visits throughout the term. Bowden.



  
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    ARTH 262 - 19th-Century European Art


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter

    Sculpture and painting in Europe from the French Revolution to 1900. King.



  
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    ARTH 263 - 20th-Century European Art


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter

    Sculpture and painting in Europe from 1900 to 1950. King.



  
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    ARTH 266 - American Art to 1945


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Not offered in 2013-2014

    Sculpture and painting in the United States from Colonial times to the mid-20th century. King.



  
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    ARTH 267 - Art Since 1945


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter

    Art in Europe and America from 1945 to the present. King.



  
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    ARTH 271 - Arts of Colonial Latin America


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter

    A survey of the art and architecture of Latin America from the 16th through early-18th centuries, this course begins with an exploration of the art of Aztec and Inca before the arrival of Europeans. Classes then explore the cultural convergence that resulted from the conquest in the 16th century, focusing on the role of indigenous artists and traditions in the formation of early colonial culture. Later lectures consider the rise of nationalism and its effect on the arts. Lepage.



  
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    ARTH 273 - Arts of Modern Latin America


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Not offered in 2012-2013

    This lecture course surveys the art and architecture of Latin America from circa 1900 to the present. Students explore the relationship between the arts in Europe and Latin America, trace the development of modern art in Latin America, and consider topics such as the rise of modernismo in Latin America, art in service of nationalism, indigenismo, and the growing Chicano movement in the United States. Among the artists covered are Diego Rivera, Frida Kahlo, Tarsila do Amaral, Joaquin Torres-Garcia, Wilfredo Lam, Lygia Clark, and Francisco Botero. Lepage.



  
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    ARTH 274 - Art and Revolution: Mexican Muralism


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 4
    Planned Offering: Spring 2013 and alternate years

    This course fulfills the Arts and Humanities requirement for the LACS minor. This lecture course surveys public monumental art produced by Mexican artists Diego Rivera, Jose Clemente Orozco, and David Alfaro Siqueiros in Mexico and the United States from 1910 to the 1970s. These artists used art to promote the social ideals of the Mexican Revolution (1911-1920). Through this muralist movement, they attempted to build a new national consciousness by celebrating the cultural heritage of the Mexican people. Quickly, the muralists and their patrons came into conflict with one another concerning how to best achieve their utopian goal of equality for all Mexicans. This course examines the various ideologies of the Mexican muralists and considers reactions to muralism by other artists as well as the public. The class also examines the impact of muralism throughout Latin America and the United States. Lepage.



  
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    ARTH 276 - Chicano Art and Muralism: From the Street to the (Staniar) Gallery


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 4
    Planned Offering: Spring 2013 and every third year

    Open to all students. This class examines the process by which Chicano/a artists have garnered public attention and respect, and have taken their artworks from the peripheries of the art world to more traditional museum and gallery spaces. Using the Great Wall of Los Angeles as a connecting thread, this class considers the broad theme of identity creation and transformation as expressed by Chicano/a artists from the 1970s to the present. Lepage.



  
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    ARTH 285 - Art of the Cities of Northern Italy, 1250-1550


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Not offered in 2013-2014

    Prerequisite: Instructor consent. The art and culture of the cities of the north during the Renaissance. Examines important churches, museums, galleries, palaces, villas, public buildings, and plazas of Milan, Como, Parma, Verona, Vicenza, Padua, Venice, Ferrara, Mantua, Florence, Siena, Cortona, Arezzo, Perugia, Assisi and Rome. Staff.



  
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    ARTH 295 - Special Topics in Art History


    Credits: 3 in fall or winter, 4 in spring
    Selected topics in art history with written and oral reports. May be repeated for degree credit if the topics are different.

    Winter 2014 topic:

    ARTH 295: The High Renaissance in Italy (3): No prerequisite. This seminar addresses issues of patronage, artistic production, criticism and art theory, and the uses and abuses of images during the High Renaissance. Works by Botticelli, Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael and Bramante are considered as emblems of larger cultural movements popular in Italian courts between 1470 and 1520. (HA) Bent.



  
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    ARTH 342 - Love, Loyalty, and Lordship: Court Art of India, 1500s to1800s


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter 2015 and alternate years.

    During the 16th-19th centuries, India’s Hindu and Islamic courts, as well as British imperial forces, vied for political authority and control over the subcontinent. Despite the political and economic volatility of the time, the regional courts commissioned spectacular secular and religious arts in the form of illustrated narratives, miniature paintings, and architectural masterpieces. This course is focused on this rich artistic heritage. As we analyze the courts’ painted and built environments, we investigate three recurring themes: love (of court, God and, in some cases, an individual); loyalty (to courtly values, religious ideals, and ruler); and lordship (over land, animals, and people). Kerin.



  
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    ARTH 347 - Forget Me Not: Visual Culture of Historic and Religious Memorials


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 4
    Planned Offering: Spring 2015 and alternate years

    No prerequisites. Appropriate for students of all class years. This class analyzes the visual material of memorial sites that shape social identity. Whether simple or elaborate in their construction, these creations allow people the space to connect with and/or honor a person or event from the historic or even mythological past. This global and thematic examination of memorials considers three primary foci: the built environment of a memorial; the performative role of visitors; and the function of memory at these sites. Kerin.



  
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    ARTH 348 - Chinese Export Porcelain and the China Trade, 1500 to 1900


    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall

    This course covers the development and history of Chinese export porcelain made for the European and American markets and its role as a commodity in the China Trade. Students examine Chinese export porcelain from several different perspectives, including art history, material culture, and economic history. Fuchs.



  
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    ARTH 350 - Medieval Art in Italy


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Fall 2014 and alternate years.

    Prerequisite: ARTH 253 or 256 or instructor consent. Art and architecture of the Italian peninsula, from circa 1200 to 1400. This seminar addresses issues of patronage, artistic training and methods of production, iconography, and the function of religious and secular imagery. Topics of discussion include the construction of Tuscan cathedrals and civic buildings; sculpture in Siena, Pisa, and Rome; and painting in Assisi, Padua, and Florence. Bent.



  
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    ARTH 351 - The City as a Work of Art: Paris


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 4
    Planned Offering: Not offered in 2013-2014

    This course considers the designs and appearances of major European cities that were originally created in antiquity, that managed to survive (and even flourish) during the Middle Ages, and that then reached a newer, fresher, and more ideologically cohesive appearance during the modem age. Students will travel to the city of Paris, France and examine its origins and evolution, with particular attention paid to its development during the 17th , 18th , and 19th centuries. Bent.



  
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    ARTH 353 - Gothic Art in Northern Europe


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Prerequisite: ARTH 254 or instructor consent. This seminar focuses on artistic, intellectual, and cultural developments in France and England during the 12th and 13th centuries. Stylistic, iconographic and theoretical issues in the visual arts are studied within the context of scholastic thought, mass pilgrimage, and monarchical consolidation. Bent.



  
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    ARTH 354 - Early Renaissance Art in Florence


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter 2014 and alternate years.

    Prerequisite: ARTH 256 or instructor consent. Examination of the intellectual, cultural, and artistic movements dominant in Florence between ca. 1400 and ca. 1440. Images and structures produced by Ghiberti, Brunelleschi, Masaccio, Donatello, and Fra Angelico are considered within the context of Florentine social traditions and political events. Bent.



  
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    ARTH 355 - The High Renaissance in Italy


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter 2015 and alternate years.

    Prerequisite: ARTH 256 or instructor consent. This seminar addresses issues of patronage, artistic production, criticism and art theory, and the uses and abuses of images during the High Renaissance. Works by Botticelli, Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael and Bramante are considered as emblems of larger cultural movements popular in Italian courts between 1470 and 1520. Bent.



  
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    ARTH 356 - Science in Art: Technical Examination of 17th-Century Dutch Paintings


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 4
    Planned Offering: Winter 2014

    Prerequisite: CHEM 156 in the preceding winter term. Spring Term Abroad course. A survey of 17th-century Dutch history, art history, politics, religion, economics, etc., which links the scientific analysis of art to the art and culture of the time. The course begins on campus and then history, etc., will occur for a few days in Lexington and then proceed to Center for European Studies, Universiteit Maastricht, The Netherlands. Students visit numerous museums, hear guest lectures from faculty at Universiteit Maastricht, and observe at conservation laboratories at some of the major Dutch art museums. Students are graded by their performance on two research projects involving presentations and journals. Though students are not required to learn a foreign language to participate in the program, they are expected to learn key phrases in Dutch as a matter of courtesy to citizens of the host country. Uffelman.



  
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    ARTH 357 - Caravaggio and Artemisia Gentileschi


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter 2015

    This seminar focuses on the work of Baroque painters Caravaggio (1573-1610) and Artemisia Gentileschi (1593-ca. 1653). We explore Caravaggio’s intense naturalism and the controversy it caused, his sense of drama, and supernatural light. Gentileschi was deeply influenced by Caravaggio but developed her own unique style. Seminar themes include the 1612 rape trial and its impact on Gentileschi’s career, issues of attribution, and proto-feminism. Lepage.



  
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    ARTH 361 - American Architecture


    FDR: HA
    Credits: 3
    Planned Offering: Winter 2014 and alternate years.

    Building in the United States from Colonial times to the present. Staff.



 

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