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Washington and Lee University    
 
    
 
  Dec 17, 2017
 
2017-2018 School of Law Catalog

Juris Doctor


 

 

Degree Requirements

  1. The degree of Juris Doctor (J.D.) is conferred, on recommendation of the Law Faculty, upon students admitted as candidates for the degree who successfully complete a minimum of 85 semester hours of work in six semesters in compliance with these regulations. 
  2. The degree of Juris Doctor summa cum laude, magna cum laude, or cum laude is conferred, on recommendation of the Law Faculty, upon students who complete their course of law study with the appropriate academic distinction.

  3. For students entering without advanced standing, residence for six semesters is required. The period of residence may be proportionately reduced for students entering with advanced standing, but the last four semesters of law study must be completed at this School.

To receive residence credit for a semester, a student in their first two years of law school, must complete 12 credit hours of graded class work and must have a grade of D or better in at least 9 semester hours of graded class work. (A second-year student must receive a grade of D or better if taking a clinic or practicum to receive credit for the course.)  Credit earned for (1) an elective course taken on a pass/no pass basis or (2) participation in the activities referred to in Paragraph 10 hereof cannot be used to satisfy this requirement. 

To receive residence credit for a semester in the third year, a student must complete at least 12 credit hours.  This includes at least one practicum, externship, or clinical course module with a grade of D or better; and, additionally, in the fall semester the skills immersion course with a passing grade.  If a student has satisfactorily completed a practicum or clinical course module in their second year then their third year could consist of 12 or more credit hours of experiential and non-experiential courses.

  1. First-year courses and all other required courses may not be dropped. Second- or third-year courses other than externships and clinical courses may be added or dropped at the option of the student (subject to limitations on class size and other limitations announced by the instructor) during the first five days of classes of the semester; thereafter such courses may be added or dropped only with the consent of the instructor. Under no circumstances may such a course be added after the tenth day of classes of the semester or dropped after the first regularly scheduled time for taking the final examination in that course.  (Non-exam courses must be dropped before exams begin.)  Independent Research projects or Tutorials must be approved by the Law Faculty's Independent Research Committee no later than the tenth day of class of the semester in which the project is to be completed. Externship and clinical courses may be dropped under extraordinary circumstances only and only with the consent of the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs.

  2. A letter grading system is used. The grades are A, A-, B+, B, B-, C+, C, C-, D+, D, D-, and F. Other grades include P (Pass), H (Honors), LP (Low Pass), NP (Not Passing), I (Incomplete), CR (Credit), or WIP (Work-in-Progress). Their weights are 4.0, 3.67, 3.33, 3.0, 2.67, 2.33, 2.0, 1.67, 1.33, 1.0, 0.67, 0.0.

In ungraded (credit only) courses, the supervising faculty member may enter a grade of I or F in appropriate circumstances.

A mandatory mean grade applies in every course, including first‐year and upper‐class courses, and including seminars, clinics, externships, practicum courses, and all other graded activities with the exception of (1) independent research, for which the only grades are "pass" or "not passing," and (2) the two‐week skills immersion courses, for which the only grades are "honors," "pass," "low pass," or "not passing," with no more than 20% of the grades being "honors."

The mandatory mean grade is 3.30, plus or minus 0.05, except in courses in which more than half the grade depends on work product other than an exam, for which the mandatory mean grade is 3.50, plus or minus 0.05. This exception does not apply to first‐year writing or legal research sections, for which the mean is the generally applicable mean of 3.30, plus or minus 0.05. If a course offers students the option of taking an exam or writing a paper, the course is treated as an exam course, and the mandatory mean is 3.30, plus or minus 0.05.  For all courses in all three years, regardless of enrollment, the grade of F shall be excluded from the mandatory mean calculation.

Except for first-year courses, additional flexibility is allowed in smaller enrollment courses:

Courses in which more than half of the grade depends upon an exam

- over 30 students            +/- 0.05     3.30 (3.35 - 3.25)

- 21-30 students              +/- 0.1       3.30 (3.40 - 3.20)

- 20 or fewer students      +/- 0.2       3.30 (3.50 - 3.10)

Courses in which more than half of the grade depends on work product other than an exam  (e.g., seminars/simulation/clinics/practicums/externships)

- over 30 students           +/- 0.05            3.50 (3.55 - 3.45)

- 21-30 students              +/- 0.1              3.50 (3.60 - 3.40)

- 20 or fewer students     +/- 0.2              3.50 (3.70 - 3.30)

The calculation of the mean grade occurs after "bumps," if any, have been assigned. 

  1. A student's cumulative average is computed by averaging the grades received in all courses taken, on the basis of the number of credit hours accorded to each course.
  2. A course in which a grade of F is received shall not be counted toward the total of 85 semester hours required for graduation; such course, however, shall be counted in computing the student's cumulative average whether or not the student repeats the course.
  3. Every student is expected to maintain satisfactory academic performance throughout the terms of residence. 

    A.  Beginning with a student's second semester, a student who fails to attain a cumulative average of 2.33 at the end of any semester is ineligible to continue in the School of Law. 

    B.  A student who fails to attain a cumulative average of 2.33 at the end of the sixth semester is ineligible to receive a degree. 

    C.  A student who during any of the first five semesters of law school receives two D+ or lower grades in one semester is automatically placed on academic suspension for the following semester.  If a student leaves school for one semester, readmission requires compliance with existing reinstatement procedures.

  4. A grade of D in each required course is necessary for graduation. A student receiving a grade of D- or F in a required course, who is otherwise eligible to continue in the School of Law, must retake the course.
  5. Credit toward a degree can be earned by participating in the following activities:
    1. Inter-school competitions. A student may earn only one credit in each of the following categories, for a maximum of four credits for inter-school competitions:
      1. A student may earn one credit hour by participating in an inter-school appellate advocacy competition approved by the Moot Court Board Faculty Advisor. No more than four appellate advocacy competitions may be approved in any academic year.
      2. A student may earn one credit hour by participating in an inter-school mock trial competition approved by the Moot Court Board Faculty Advisor. No more than two mock trial competitions may be approved in any academic year.
      3. A student may earn one credit hour by participating in an inter-school negotiation competition approved by the Moot Court Board Faculty Advisor. No more than two negotiation competitions may be approved in any academic year.
      4. A student may earn one credit hour by participating in an inter-school client counseling competition approved by the Moot Court Board Faculty Advisor. No more than one client counseling competition may be approved in any academic year.
      5. A student may earn one credit hour by participating in an inter-school mediation competition approved by the Moot Court Board Faculty Advisor. No more than one mediation competition may be approved in any academic year.
      6. A student may earn one credit hour by participating in an inter-school arbitration competition approved by the Moot Court Board Faculty Advisor. No more than one arbitration competition may be approved in any academic year.
      7. A student may earn credit for participation on the Moot Court Board, one credit per semester for the Chair and Vice Chairs, and one credif for members of the "Lower Board" (those in charge of particular intramural competitions) in the semester of the relevant competition.
    2. Law Review: up to six credit hours may be earned by participating in this activity.  (Second-year students may receive two ungraded credits per semester.  Third-year students may receive one ungraded credit per semester.)
    3. Summer Internship Program: credit may be earned by participation in an approved unpaid internship program. (Maximum of two ungraded credits, one per summer.)
    4. Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice: up to four credit hours may be earned by participating in this activity. (One ungraded credit per semester.)
    5. German Law Journal. Students who have successfully completed the German Law in Context Seminar are thereafter eligible to serve as student editors of the German Law Journal. Maximum of two ungraded credits.(Third year students) (One ungraded credit per semester.)
    6. No more than five hours of credit toward a degree may be earned by participation in the activities described above other than Law Review.
    7. Allocation and granting of credit for participation in each of the activities described in Paragraph 10 shall be determined by the faculty advisor.
    8. The faculty advisor of any activity listed within Paragraph 10 may assign a grade of F to any student who fails to perform satisfactorily. In the alternative, the faculty advisor may enter a grade of I or may require or permit the student to drop the activity.
  6. Academic Success Requirements

    (1) After 1L Fall Semester

    The Academic Dean will determine which students, based on their first-semester performance, would most benefit from enhanced instruction during their second semester of law school.  Those students will be required to participate in Legal Reasoning, a course normally to be taught by the professor supervising the Academic Success Program. 

    (2) After 1L Spring Semester

    Students in the bottom 20% of their class at the end of their 1L year will be, during their 2L fall semester, (a) invited to participate in Legal Method, a course normally to be taught by the professor supervising the Academic Support Program; and (b) required to take one bar exam course.  (see list below) Please note that the list excludes the two bar courses we already require, Constitutional Law and Evidence.

    (3) After 2L Fall Semester

    Students in the bottom 20% of their class after their third semester will be required to take one bar exam course during their 2L spring semester. 

    (4) After 2L Spring Semester

    Students in the bottom 20% of their class after their fourth semester will be required  to take (1) one bar exam course during their 3L fall semester; and (2) Core Skills and Concepts during their 3L spring semester.

    (5) After 3L Fall Semester

    Students in the bottom 20% of their class after their fifth semester will be required to take Core Skills and Concepts during their 3L spring semester.

    Bar Exam Courses:

    Close Business Arrangements

    Conflict of Laws

    Core Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) Concepts

    Criminal Procedure - Investigation

    Decedents' Estates and Trusts

    Family Law

    Federal Income Taxation of Individuals

    Payment Systems

    Remedies

    Sales

    Secured Transactions

  7. Any elective course (but no required course, and no clinic, externship classroom component, or practicum) may be taken on a pass/no pass basis unless the instructor, before the beginning of the semester in which the course is offered, denies students this option. A student who elects to take a course or courses pass/no pass must (1) also meet for the semester the requirements for graded class work in Paragraph 3 hereof and (2) file in the Law Records Office a written election to take the course or courses on a pass/no pass basis no later than three weeks after the beginning of the semester. When a pass/no pass election has been filed, it cannot be withdrawn, except as provided in the following paragraph.
       A grade of C or higher shall be recorded as P (Pass).  A grade of C- or lower shall be recorded as NP (Not Passing) unless the student promptly files in the Law Records Office an election to accept the letter grade.  Neither a grade of P nor a grade of NP shall affect the student's cumulative average.  Any semester hours for which a grade of NP is recorded shall not be included in the total semester hours the student has completed toward the minimum required for a degree.  If a student who has received a grade of C- or lower elects to accept the letter grade, it shall be treated as a grade in a graded course for all purposes.

  8. A grade of I (Incomplete) must be changed to a letter grade no later than the end of the grading period for the semester following the semester in which the I is awarded. Otherwise, the I becomes a permanent grade. A letter grade received by the change of an I in conformity with this requirement shall be treated for the purposes of any other degree requirement as having been received in the semester in which the I was received.
  9. A student, in order to receive a degree, must, during his or her second year, complete a research and writing project under the direct supervision of a member of the Faculty or a Dean.  Satisfactory completion of the requirement will be demonstrated by certification from the instructor who supervises the project. To satisfy the requirement a writing project must require thorough legal research, a substantial piece of legal writing, and rewriting in response to criticism from the supervising instructor. The requirement may be satisfied by an Independent Research Project or a law journal note if the above standards are met.  The requirement may also be met by satisfactory completion of a paper meeting the above standards and submitted as part of the regular work in designated courses or seminars.
  10. Students, by the end of their third year must complete (i) practicum, externship, or clinical course modules (worth at least 16 graded credit hours in the aggregate-except for a maximum of 4 ungraded externship field credits), with at least one module constituting an actual practice experience and Skills Immersion (two credit hours).  (16 experiential credits plus 2 immersion credits)  (Class of 2019 - Evidence may also count towards total required experiential credits.)
  11. A student who wishes to petition the Law Faculty to waive any of these regulations because of special circumstances or hardship shall deliver to the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs a petition setting forth such special circumstances or hardship.
  12. A student's petition to take all or part of the third year at another ABA-approved law school will be granted only when such action is necessary for a student to deal with compelling circumstances that demand his or her presence near such other school.

Attendance

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In accordance with the accreditation standards of the American Bar Association, the School of Law requires prompt and regular class attendance.  The School of Law also expects its students to prepare for their classes diligently and to complete course assignments in a timely and professional manner.  A professor has the authority to reduce a student's grade for poor attendance, lack of preparation, or failure to complete course assignments on time.  In extreme or chronic cases of poor attendance, lack of preparation, or failure to complete course assignments on time, a professor has the authority to give the student a failing grade or to deny the student the right to sit for the final exam.  In the case of a student's failure to satisfy attendance and other obligations in multiple courses, the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, after consultation with the Dean, may impose other sanctions, including withdrawal from a course or courses or withdrawal from school.

Employment

First-year students are strongly encouraged not to be employed outside the law school and to limit their hours to 10 per week.

Classroom Computer Use

Laptop computers or other electronic devices may be used in class only for taking notes, displaying case briefs, or other academic purposes explicitly authorized by the professor.  Some professors prohibit classroom laptop use.

Exchange Program

 

The Law School has a number of exchange programs with partner schools in foreign countries.  One program is with Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. At Trinity, Ireland's premier university, Law School students take courses with graduate law students from both Ireland and from other foreign countries.  This program offers Law School students a fine opportunity to gain international perspectives on the law, and to meet other law students from around the world. The program also adds to the intellectual life of the Law School by bringing foreign law students to Lexington.  W&L students would normally spend only one semester at Trinity.  Openings are limited. 

A second program is with the University of Copenhagen, the largest educational institution in Denmark.  The University of Copenhagen offers a significant number of courses in English each semester.  This allows exchange students to put together a comprehensive study programme, which will meet the demands of their home institutions.

These programs, however, may present challenges in meeting the law school's experiential credit graduation requirements.  Students considering either of these should discuss scheduling with the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, who has the authority to grant waivers in appropriate cases.   Law School students pay regular Law School tuition during their stays; financial aid packages are not affected by participation in these program. 

Credit for Work in Summer Session

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The School of Law does not offer a summer session. However, students may take courses offered in the summer sessions at other accredited law schools to earn up to six credit hours toward their degrees. In order to receive credit for courses taken in the summer sessions at other law schools, a student must obtain advance approval from the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs of the School of Law and submit to the Law Records Office, no later than the end of the grading period for the following semester, a transcript evidencing satisfactory completion of the summer work. Satisfactory completion of a summer school course means fulfillment of the course requirements established by the law school where the course is taken, with a letter grade equivalent to C or higher.  Credits earned for summer session coursework taken pass-fail are not eligible for transfer to Washington and Lee.  Only summer credit will transfer; your W&L grade point average will not reflect grades earned in summer school.

Class Standings

Exact class standings are not released. Each student, however, is informed of his or her grade-point average, and may divulge this information to prospective employers. In addition, each student can determine the approximate percentile in the class in which he or she falls because students are provided with grade-point cutoffs at five percent intervals.

Applications for Degrees

An applicant for the degree of Juris Doctor is required, during the third year in the School of Law, to file an application for the degree with the Registrar of the University.